The U.S. Department of Justice has charged three men in connection to the largest data breach ever, which exposed 1 billion e-mail records from more than 100 different businesses from 2009 to 2012.

Two Vietnamese citizens–Viet Quoc Nguyen and Giang Hoang Vu, who were both residing in the Netherlands–have been charged with hacking into U.S. e-mail service providers. Montreal-based Canadian David-Manuel Santos Da Silva was charged with helping the two men knowingly convert stolen e-mail addresses into $2 million in profits via his affiliate-marketing company, called 21 Celsius, which operated a site called


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