It was a New Year’s Eve weekend many residents of Los Angeles, Calif. and West Hollywood will not likely forget. Over the course of 3 days, a single suspect was tied to as many as 50 car fires, causing an estimated $2 million in damages.

This case is an example of the staggering toll arson takes on both people and property. It is a serious crime. As shown by the recent Southern California fires, fires can often spread to surrounding homes or commercial properties, with devastating results.

According to the U.S. Fire Administration, in 2010, arson fires killed 260 people and caused nearly $500 million in damages. [2011, U.S. Fire Administration] This includes arson-for-profit, a criminal method of obtaining money from a fire loss policy. According to a study by Insurance Research Council (IRC), 14 percent of arson suspects are motivated by a desire to defraud an insurance company. [2009, U.S. Fire Administration]

Insurers have an interest in preventing and detecting arson fires that cause loss of life and property, as well as increase insurance costs. When investigating suspected arson fraud, investigators are charged with fully examining the matter, looking to pinpoint the fire’s origin and cause, as well as the circumstances surrounding the insurance claim. Claims professionals use a variety of tools and techniques, including examinations under oath (EUOs), which play a key role by obtaining information that helps make informed coverage decisions. 

The impact of arson is significant. Click “next” to the right below to view recent statistics.

An Overview of Arson

According to the Unites States Fire Administration, in 2010 (the most recent year for which data are available), there were 16,200 intentionally set residential fires nationwide that killed 260 people and injured 750.  These fires caused nearly $500 million in damage.  Approximately 8,500 nonresidential fires were intentionally set, causing nearly $370 million in damages. [2011, United States Fire Administration] 

  • Arson is the second leading cause of fire losses in non-residential commercial buildings and is the fourth largest cause of residential fires. According to insurance industry experts and national fire incident data, one in every 10 fires in the United States today is intentionally set. [2011, United States Fire Administration]  
  • The average dollar loss for all types of arson was $17,289. Arson damages average $32,364 and $7,890 for motor vehicles.  Arsons of industrial and manufacturing structures resulted in the highest average dollar losses—$114,699 per arson. [2009. U.S. Fire Administration]
  • Offenders are hard to apprehend and convict. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 2008 statistics, only 18 percent of arson offenses were cleared by arrest or exceptional means; 47 percent of arrestees were under the age of 18; 3 percent of arrestees were under the age of 10. [2010, NFPA] 

Common Motives

People intentionally start fires for many reasons, including financial difficulties, anger/revenge, or mental illness.  The issue of fraud comes into play when property owners deliberately destroy or damage their home, business, or automobile by fire for the purpose of collecting from their insurance companies.  Arson fraud is typically committed by individuals (mostly male) facing financial hardship such as foreclosure, divorce, or bankruptcy.  In some instances, homeowners use arson as a way to remodel or rebuild their home.

Business owners also commit arson fraud for similar reasons.  However, business owners are often more savvy than individuals when it comes to arson fraud, and the monetary impact is greater (fraudulent inventory claims for items that didn’t exist or were removed from the building before the fire was set.)  

Insurance Investigations & Examinations Under Oath

If arson fraud is suspected, then claims professionals conduct thorough investigations separate from the fire department and look at a variety of factors, including origin and cause of the fire, coverage and subrogation issues, witness interviews, and possible motives. 

Typically, an attorney is hired to conduct an examination under oath (EUO)—one of the most important parts of an insurance investigation—to obtain information from the insured and address specific questions and concerns about a claim.  The named insured (or others as dictated by the policy) is required to submit to an examination under oath upon request pursuant to the loss conditions of the policy under which the claim is being presented.  This policy language is standard across the nation and exists in almost all homeowner and commercial policies, and in many automobile policies.  For example, in California, the EUO is included in the California Standard Fire Insurance Policy, which is set forth in Insurance Code Section 2071(a). Note that if an insured attends an EUO, but fails to answer material questions, the carrier can deny the claim. The insured also must attend the EUO even if they have previously provided a recorded statement. 

EUO Fundamentals

What is covered?

A: The EUO is a statement under oath (a court reporter is present to record the statement), and provides an opportunity to gather information significant to the investigation and cross-examine the insured.  The scope of questioning in an EUO is very broad and may include all aspects that are material to the insured’s claim.  The critical questions tend to focus on where the insured was at the time of the fire.  Additionally, the insured’s financial condition prior to the loss is explored in great detail.  This information is useful in establishing whether or not the insured had a motive to cause the fire and fraudulently overstate or completely falsify a claim.  If criminal information is uncovered, the attorney should follow insurance code sections that allow him or her to share information with authorities.  The EUO (or portions thereof) also can be read as testimony during a criminal court trial. 

The Timing

The timing of an EUO is based on the initial results of the insurance investigation.  If the findings raise concerns about the claim, the next step is to schedule an EUO.  A follow-up EUO also could be scheduled, as most policies allow statements from the insured to be requested as often as reasonably necessary.  If criminal proceedings are underway, the insured can ask the insurance carrier to delay the EUO until the end of the criminal proceedings.  The insurance company also has a right to wait until the end of criminal proceedings to make a decision about the claim.  

The Location

The EUO is formally requested by the insurance company and may only be conducted upon reasonable notice, at a reasonably convenient place, and for a reasonable length of time. California Insurance Code Section 2071.1 sets forth some of an insured’s rights regarding EUOs. This law codifies existing good practices and could be followed by insurance companies in states without similar statutes. Select a location that is convenient for the insured—I have conducted EUOs in a variety of unusual locations, such as jails, truck stops, and the loss site itself (a burned out house), which allowed the insured to explain and show the burned contents under discussion. 

Production of Records

Part of the insurance code is a provision requiring the production of records—one of the most important aspects of an examination under oath.  The insured has a duty to cooperate and provide what is reasonably requested.  The documentation requested could include mortgage information, outstanding credit obligations, bank statements, phone records, and records pertaining to civil litigation and criminal histories.  These records will help the insurance company:

  • Explore any concerns it may have about the insured’s financial status
  • Confirm where the insured was at the time of the fire
  • Confirm the insured’s testimony

My work on a recent insurance fraud investigation following a suspicious residential fire provides an example of the vital role records play in corroborating or dispelling testimony from the insureds.  This case was complicated by the fact that the homeowner’s handyman died as a result of being burned in the home fire.  During the examinations under oath, the homeowners misrepresented and concealed information about the condition of the home, their financial situation, and their relationship and recent contact with the handyman.  However, the homeowners changed their testimony when asked to produce cell phone bills but still did not provide accurate dates about the phone calls.  Phone records later indicated a number of recent calls to and from the handyman to the insureds’ cell phones, including calls to the homeowner husband on the day of the fire.  The facts showed that the husband had hired the handyman to set the fire, and based on all the information, the claim was denied.  Additionally, the police used information from the insurance inquiry to supplement their criminal investigation, which ended with significant prison sentences for the homeowners. 

Who Conducts the EUO?

Though there is no requirement that an attorney conduct an examination under oath, in practice, attorneys conduct the majority of examinations because they are trained in the examination and cross-examination of witnesses.  Importantly, the attorney selected to conduct the EUO should be experienced and familiar with arson claims.  A familiarity with basic fire principles is essential in order to understand the responses given about the circumstances of the fire.  The insured has a right to representation by counsel at his or her own expense.  A public adjuster has no specified right to attend but often is allowed to do so. 

Selecting the Right Attorney

An attorney with experience taking EUOs in fire cases and property claims is an invaluable asset to the investigation. Ask for referrals and meet with the attorney to determine if he or she is the best possible representative of your company. Based on their expertise, a knowledgeable attorney can identify the issues early and then focus the examination under oath on issues pertinent to the arson fraud investigation.