Karen Clark was sitting in front of a computer in the mid-1980s, mulling over problems the actuaries weren’t working on.

Commercial Union Assurance, her employer at the time, wanted to find a way to manage hurricane risk. Clark was told to figure out a way to determine the insurer’s probable maximum losses (PMLs), and she immersed herself in research.

“I got hooked on it,” Clark says. “I knew I wanted to build a computer model. I fell in love with the whole concept.”

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