Thank you for sharing!

Your article was successfully shared with the contacts you provided.

Psychological and social factors (e.g., mental illness, a history of being physically abused, eligibility for compensation, etc.) are extremely well-established as being predictive of the development of chronic pain. The non-credible premise that chronic pain is somehow work-related or injury-related appears to contribute to the detrimental effect that workers’ compensation has on the health of claimants because it creates a misdirected diagnosis and treatment emphasis on an injury model, instead of allowing for a focus on the non-work-related diagnostic issues and credible treatment approaches.

Given the role of psychological and social issues in the development of chronic pain, it is not surprising that such issues have also been scientifically established as predictors of whether an individual will benefit from medical treatments such as back surgery, spinal cord stimulation (SCS), implanted pumps, and the like.

For example, scientific findings have indicated that everything on the following list is predictive of a poor outcome for medical treatments for pain: eligibility for compensation, mental illness (e.g. mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, a history of substance abuse), a history of being physically or sexually abused, a tendency to think catastrophically about pain, a low level of physical activity, job dissatisfaction, a lack of social support, unusual or extreme pain ratings, a low level of educational achievement, being widowed or divorced, a high level of perceived stress, a pessimistic attitude, a distrust of doctors, a correlation in time between pain onset or worsening and significant life events, and a history of having been abandoned or neglected in childhood. Additionally, many psychological tests and questionnaires have been scientifically validated as predictors of outcomes for medical treatment of pain.

Want to continue reading?
Become a Free
PropertyCasualty360 Digital Reader.


  • All PropertyCasualty360.com news coverage, best practices, and in-depth analysis.
  • Educational webcasts, resources from industry leaders, and informative newsletters.
  • Other award-winning websites including BenefitsPRO.com and ThinkAdvisor.com.

Already have an account?

Dig Deeper



Join PropertyCasualty360

Don’t miss crucial news and insights you need to make informed decisions for your P&C insurance business. Join PropertyCasualty360.com now!

  • Unlimited access to PropertyCasualty360.com - your roadmap to thriving in a disrupted environment
  • Access to other award-winning ALM websites including BenefitsPRO.com, ThinkAdvisor.com and Law.com
  • Exclusive discounts on PropertyCasualty360, National Underwriter, Claims and ALM events

Already have an account? Sign In Now
Join PropertyCasualty360

Copyright © 2021 ALM Media Properties, LLC. All Rights Reserved.